Sea Anemones of the Southern Ocean

At DKHQ we are constantly asked whether some of the facts portrayed on Finding Nemo are true, specifically the much difficult to pronounce Sea Anemone. Pixar did a wonderful job raising the profile of tropical reefs, although to the detriment of Clown Fish who, if the facts are correct, were being flushed down toilets by young children wanting to release ‘Nemo’ back into the ocean.

This aside, the often asked sea anemone questions at DKHQ are: a. can sea anemones sting, and b. can their poison kill humans? The answer to a. is yes and to b. is no. This public fascination with sea anemones inspired today’s DKHQ Marine Fact, with a focus on southern sea anemones.

Unlike the large sea anemones of our tropical reefs systems found across the globe’s equator line, the sea anemones of the southern ocean are comparatively smaller but just as beautiful and colourful. Here are some interesting facts:

1. Southern sea anemones always occur as solitary individuals usually in intertidal and subtidal areas.

2. All sea anemones have one opening, function both as its mouth and anus (this fact usually elicits some funny facial and noise reactions). Sea anemones are carnivores, on other animals.

3. The sea anemone body is supported by water pressure, which means when not in water their body and tentacles become floppy.

4. The tentacles of all sea anemones radiate from the mouth in one or many rows and are hollow. These tentacles contain stinging cells known in marine science as nematocysts. Each nematocyst contains a pressurised coil that can be pushed out to capture prey or used as self defence. The sea anemone use the nematocysts to stun, and in some cases, kill the prey.

5. Nearly all southern ocean sea anemones grow attached to a rock or some other type of hard structure. The exception to this rule (and when it comes to Mother Nature, there is usually one exception to the rule) is the Swimming anemone known by its scientific name as Phlyctenactis tubercles. (See image below). The Swimming anemone can move through the current or crawl along hard structures.

The Swimming anemone, Phlyctenactis tuberculosa.
The Swimming anemone, Phlyctenactis tuberculosa.

So why can’t sea anemones sting us? Our skin is too thick to be penetrated by its stinging cells, unlike many sea creatures with very thin skin. In the case of Clown fish, they have adapted over a long time for their skin to not be affected by the stinging cells and use the sea anemone as a place of protection from enemies.

DKHQ hopes you enjoyed these sea anemone facts and will leave you to enjoy the beautiful colours of some of the southern ocean’s sea anemones.

This beautiful sea anemone is known as Phlyctenanthus australis and can be found along Australia's intertidal shoreline that is exposed to ocean waves.
This beautiful sea anemone is known as Phlyctenanthus australis and can be found along Australia’s intertidal shoreline that is exposed to ocean waves.
This gorgeous red sea anemone is known as the Waratah Anemone and it's scientific name Actinia tenebrosa. This lovely Waratah Anemone can be found along the intertidal shoreline, often looking like a red blob at low tide.
This gorgeous red sea anemone is known as the Waratah Anemone and it’s scientific name Actinia tenebrosa. This lovely Waratah Anemone can be found along the intertidal shoreline, often looking like a red blob at low tide.
This fun orange and white stripped sea anemone is known as Anthothoe alboctinia and can be found under rocks or underhangs along Australia's intertidal shoreline that is exposed to ocean waves.
This fun orange and white stripped sea anemone is known as Anthothoe alboctinia and can be found under rocks or underhangs along Australia’s southern intertidal shoreline that is exposed to ocean waves. There are two variations to this sea anemone, white and orange stripes and brown and green stripes.

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